Pedagogy is the teaching of children, or dependent personalities. Andragogy is the facilitation learning for adults, who are self-directed learners. Heutagogy is the management of learning for self-managed learners. Below is a table comparing Pedagogy, Andragogy, and Heutagogy, recreated in an accessible format from Teach Thought.
|Dependence||The learner is a dependent personality. Teacher determines what, how, and when anything is learned.||Adults are independent. They strive for autonomy and self-direction in learning.||Learners are interdependent. They identify the potential to learn from novel experiences as a matter of course. They are able to manage their own learning.|
|Resources for learning||The learner has few resources — the teacher devises transmission techniques to store knowledge in the learner’s head.||Adults use their own and other’s experience.||Teacher provides some resources, but the learner decides the path by negotiating the learning.|
|Reasons for learning||Learn in order to advance to the next stage.||Adults learn when they experience a need to know or to perform more effectively.||Learning is not necessarily planned or linear. Learning is not necessarily based on need but on the identification of the potential to learn in novel situations.|
|Focus of learning||Learning is subject centered, focused on the prescribed curriculum and planned sequences according to the logic of the subject matter.||Adult learning is task or problem centered.||Learners can go beyond problem solving by enabling pro-activity. Learners use their own and others’ experiences and internal processes such as reflection, environmental scanning, experience, interaction with others, and pro-active as well a problem-solving behaviors.|
|Motivation||Motivation comes from external sources — usually parents, teachers, and a sense of competition.||Motivation stems from internal sources — the increased self-esteem, confidence and recognition that come from successful performance.||Self-efficacy, knowing how to learn, creativity, ability to use these qualities in novel as well as situations, and working with others.|
|Role of the teacher||Designs the learning process, imposes material, is assumed to know best.||Enabler or facilitator, climate of collaboration, respect and openness||Develop the learner’s capability. Capable people:Know how to learnAre creativeHave a high degree of self-efficacyApply competencies in novel as well as familiar situationsCan work well with others|