Objectives describe what learners will be able to do at the end of instruction, and they provide clear reasons for teaching. When writing objectives be sure to describe the intended result of instruction rather than the process of instruction itself.

Clearly defined learning objectives are useful for instructors, instructional designers and students:

  • In order to select and design instructional content, choose materials or methods that can be measured.
  • To give designers and instructors an objective method to determine how successful their material has been. By clearly stating the results we want the learners to accomplish, instructors can identify whether students have gained the appropriate skills and knowledge.
  • Because objectives should be stated before learners begin their instructional materials, they provide students the means to organize their efforts toward accomplishing the desired behaviors.

Components of an objective

When writing learning objectives, avoid terms that cannot be clearly understood by the reader. It is necessary to communicate an objective as clearly as possible to avoid misinterpretation.

A useful objective successfully describes an intended instructional result by describing the purpose of the instruction. The BEST statement is one that excludes the greatest number of possible meanings other than the one  intended. In other words, it succeeds in communicating the intent of instruction yet avoids misinterpretation.

The ABCD’s of Learning Objectives includes four characteristics that help an objective communicate an intent:

The learners:
Identify who it is that will be doing the performance (not the instructor).

Behavior (Performance):
What the learner will be able to do:
Make sure it is something that can be seen or heard.

The conditions under which the learners must demonstrate their mastery of the objective:
What will the learners be allowed to use? What won’t the learners be allowed to use?

Degree (or criterion)
HOW WELL the behavior must be done:
Common degrees include: Speed, Accuracy, Quality

Kinds of Objectives

Objectives can be written for any type of learning. A common way to categorize learning is by the domain in which it occurs. The three domains and ensuing type of objectives include:


Thought or knowledge

Objectives describe: “what the student is able to do” (observable)Affective

Feelings or choices

Objectives describe : “how the student chooses to act”Psychomotor

Physical skills

Objectives describe: “what the student can perform”

Written objectives take two forms depending on the domain of learning. Examples include:

“Learner will be able to” (LWBAT)
Used for:
Cognitive objectives
Psychomotor objectives

“Learner will choose to” (LWCT)
Used for:
Affective objectives

Difference Between Goals and Objectives

Goals are broad; objectives are narrow.
Goals are general intentions; objectives are precise.
Goals are intangible; objectives are tangible.
Goals are abstract; objectives are concrete.
Goals can’t be validated as is; objectives can be validated.

Goal: To know about the human body.
Objective: LWBAT name 200 of the 206 bones in the human body without referring to the textbook.

Building Objectives

Remember the ABCD’s of writing clear learning objectives:

Audience, Behavior, Condition, and Degree.