Comparison of F-1 and J-1 Visa Types
|Eligibility Restrictions||None||Cannot be self-funded unless participating in an exchange program pursuant to a formal written agreement between educational institutions or governmental offices|
|On-Campus Employment||Available up to 20 hours per week when school is in session and 40 hours per week during annual school holidays||Same as F-1|
|Off-Campus Employment||Yes: Can be authorized for unforeseen financial hardship, Curricular Practical Training, or Pre- and Post-completion Optional Practical Training||Yes: Can be authorized for unforeseen financial hardship or Academic Training|
|Practical/ Academic Training Types||1)Curricular Practical Training (CPT)
2)Optional (pre- or post-completion) Practical Training (OPT)
|Optional or Required Academic Training may take place before or after graduation|
|Time Limits||Curricular: None, although if you use more than 12 months of full-time CPT, you lose your eligibility for any OPT
Optional(Pre- and Post-completion, combined): 12 months maximum
|Note: In general, the period of Academic Training may not exceed 18 months or the amount of time spent in the academic program, whichever is less.
Nondegree: 24 months maximum, including the academic program itself
Part-time Academic Training counts the same as Full-time Academic Training.
|Requirement of Job Offer||Curricular: Yes
Pre-completion Optional: Recommended
Post-completion Optional: No
Post-completion: Yes. Must have job offer within 30 days of completion of studies and you must apply before you complete your program as well
|Authorization From USCIS||Curricular: Not required. Authorization is obtained from International Office advisor.
Pre- and Post-completion Optional: Required before student may begin work. Authorization takes 3-4 months
|None required. Authorization is obtained from the International Office advisor|
|Possibility of Changing Status||Yes, fairly easily||It depends. May be problematic for students subject to the 2-year home residency requirement|
|Work Authorization For Spouse||None possible||Yes, with evidence that salary is not needed to fund stay, and it requires USCIS approval|
|Insurance Requirement per Visa Status||None per visa category. Although the College requires all students to carry insurance, this isnota federal requirement, nor does it apply to spouses||Yes, for J-1 students andalldependents. Willful failure to maintain adequate health insurance as defined by federal regulations will result in the student’s termination from the J-1 program, thus also terminating his/her J-1 status|
|Permission to Stay in U.S. after Completion of Studies||60 days granted automatically||30 days granted automatically|