Less-well-known eating disorders and related problems:
1. Anorexia Athletica
Not a formal diagnosis, usually part of anorexia, bulimia or obsessive-compulsive disorder. The person exercises beyond the requirements for good health.
2. Body dysmorphic disorder
A subtype of Obsessive-compulsive disorder. Excessively concerned with appearance. These sufferers are at an elevated risk for despair and suicide. Many undergo multiple plastic surgeries.
3. Muscle dysmorphia (bigorexia)
Opposite of anorexia. People obsess about being small and underdeveloped; and believe their muscles are inadequate.
4. Orthorexia Nervosa
Not an official eating disorder diagnosis, but the concept is useful. It describes “a pathological fixation” on eating a “proper” or “pure” or “superior” food. These people believe that they are superior to people who eat ìimproperî foods (non-organic or junk foods) as opposed to food from health food stores. They also obsess about the proper way to prepare foods. This is related to an obsessive-compulsive disorder.
5. Night-eating syndrome
Most of the daytime calories are eaten late in the day or at night. They feel guilty about how many calories they ate the night before and often delay the morning meals.
6. Nocturnal sleep related eating disorder
Thought to be a sleep disorder, not an eating disorder. The person sleep-eats, and may sleep walk as well.
7. Rumination Syndrome
The person eats, swallows, and then regurgitates the food back into the mouth where it is chewed and swallowed again. This process may be repeated several times over for several hours per episode. It may be voluntary or involuntary.
8. Gourmand Syndrome
The person is preoccupied with fine food, including its purchase, preparation, presentation, and consumption. Exceedingly rare, thought to be caused by an injury to the brain.
9. Prader-Willi Syndrome
A congenital problem associated with mental retardation and behavior problems, including a drive to eat constantly that will not be denied.
A craving for non-food items such as dirt, clay, plaster, chalk or paint chips.
11. Cyclic Vomiting Syndrome
Cycles of frequent vomiting, usually found in children. May be related to or share neurological mechanisms with migraine headaches.
12. Chewing & Spitting
The person puts food in his/her mouth, tastes it, chews it, and then spits it out. This is a calorie control behavior seen in anorexia. The person can experience the enjoyment of food but avoid the calories by not incorporating the nutrients into the body.